Research - Publications

LiMF is involved in research related to small reserve management. The following is a list of publications that may be of interest to LiMF members.

NB Links are provided to official sources of all publications. Some are open access, however some will require a subscription for access. If you are having trouble accessing an article that you are interested in reading, please contact and we will be happy to assist you.

LiMF publications:

McEvoy OK, Miller SM, Beets W, Bodasing T, Borrego N, Burger A, Courtenay B, Ferreira S, Hanekom C, Hofmeyr M, Packer C, Robertson D, Stratford K, Slotow R, Parker DM. 2019. The use of contraceptive techniques in managed wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations to mimic open system cub recruitment. Wildl Res; 46(5): 398-408.

Miller SM, Bissett C, Burger A, Courtenay B, Dickerson T, Druce DJ, et al. 2013. Management of reintroduced lions in small, fenced reserves in South Africa: An assessment and guidelines. S Afr J Wildl Res; 43: 138-54.

Other publications that may be of interest to managers (red indicates LiMF member):

Miller, S.M. 2024. An update on reducing cub recruitment in small, fenced wild lion populations. African Journal of Wildlife Research. 54: 15-19.

Nicholson, S., Bauer, H., Strampelli, P., Sogbohossou, E., Ikanda, D., Tumenta, P.F., Venktraman, M., Chapron, G. & Loveridge, A. 2023. Panthera leo. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2023: e.T15951A231696234.

Mwampeta, S.B., Roskaft, E., Fyumagwa, R., Belant, J.L. 2023. A review of field techniques to estimate lion presence and abundance. Mammal Review.

Nicholson, S.K., Dickman, A., Hinks, A., Riggio, J., Bauer, H., Loveridge, A.,… Funston, P.,… Jabobson, A.P. 2023. Socio-political and ecological fragility of threatened, free-ranging African lion populations. Communications Earth & Environment. 4: 302.

Ball, I.A, Marneweck, D.G., Elliot, N.B., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Fritz, H., Venter, J.A. 2023. Considerations on effort, precision and accuracy for long-term monitoring of African lions (Panthera leo), when using Bayesian spatial explicit capture–recapture models, in fenced protected areas. Ecology and Evolution.

Nams, V.O., Parker, D.M., Weise, F.J., Patterson, B.D., Buij, R., Radloff, F.G.T.Funston, P.J.Power, R.J., O’Brien, J.Tambling, C.J.Ferreira, S.M. … Bissett, C. … Beukes, M. 2023. Spatial patterns of large African cats: a large-scale study on density, home range size, and home range overlap of lions Panthera leo and leopards Panthera pardus. Mammal Review.

Olivier, I.R., Tambling, C.J., Muller, L., Radloff, F.G.T. 2022. Lion (Panthera leo) diet and cattle depredation on the Kudu Group Ranch Pastoralist area in southern Maasailand, Kenya. Wildlife Research. https://doi:10.1071/WR22019

Becker, M.S., … Gaylard, A., … Miller, S.M., … Parker, D., … Selier, S.A.J. … Hunter, L. 2022. Guidelines for evaluating the conservation value of African lion (Panthera leo) translocations. Frontiers in Conservation Science. 3:963961.

McEvoy, O.K., Ferreira, S.M., Parker, D.M. 2022. The impacts of management  interventions on the sociality of African lions (Panthera leo): Implications for lion conservation. Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 3:e12135.

Andrew, K.E. 2022. Settling in: Do reintroduced lions and cheetahs exhibit prey choice shifts? MSc Thesis, Nelson Mandela University

Anner, E. 2022. Refining predator-prey preference at the prey demographic level for cheetah and lion. MSc Thesis, Nelson Mandela University

Bettings, I.A. 2022. Using spatial explicit capture-recapture model to investigate the demography and spatial dynamics of lions prides in Pilanesberg National Park. MSc Thesis, Nelson Mandela University

Bertola, L.D., Miller, S.M., Williams, V.L., Naude, V.N., Coals, P., Dures, S.G., Henschel, P., Chege, M., Sogbohossou, E.A., Ndiaye, A., Kiki, M., Gaylard, A., Ikanda, D.K., Becker, M.S, Lindsey, P. 2022. Genetic guidelines for translocations: maintaining intra-specific diversity in the lion (Panthera leo). Evolutionary Applications

Banasiak, N.M., Hayward, M.W., Kerley, G.I.H. 2021. Ten years on: have large carnivore reintroductions to the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, worked? African Journal of Wildlife Research

McEvoy, O.K., Ferreira, S.M., Parker, D.M. 2021. The influence of population demographics on lion (Panthera leo) growth rates in small, fenced wildlife reserves. African Journal of Wildlife Research

Williams, V.L., Coals, P.G., de Bruyn, M., Naude, V.N., Dalton, D.L., Kotzee, A. 2021. Monitoring compliance of CITES lion bone exports from South Africa. PLOSOne

Wijers, M., Trethowan, P., du Preez, B., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Loveridge, A.J., Macdonald, D.W., Markham, A. 2021. The influence of spatial features and atmospheric conditions on African lion vocal behaviour. Animal Behaviour 0003-3472

Di Minin, E., Slotow, R., Fink, C., Bauer, H., Packer, C. 2021. A pan-African spatial assessment of human conflicts with lions and elephants. Nature Communications

Curry, C.J., Davis, B.W., Bertola, L.D., White, P.A., Murphy, W.J., Derr, J.N. 2020. Spatiotemporal genetic diversity of lions reveals the influence of habitat fragmentation across Africa. Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Briers-Louw, W.D., Leslie, A.J. 2020. Dietary partitioning of three large carnivores in Majete Wildlife Reserve, Malawi. African Journal of Ecology.  http://DOI: 10.1111/aje.12767

Braga, D.P.deA.F., Pizzutto, C.S…. Fuimaraes, M.A.deB.V., 2020. Suppression of oviarian activity in a captive African lion Panthera leo after deslorelin treatment. Journal of Threatened Taxa.

Maruping-Mzileni, N.T., Ferreira, S.M., Funston, P.J., Kalala Mutombo, F., Goodall, V. 2020. Horizontal disease transmission in lions from behavioural interfaces via social network analysis. Mammal Research.

Kotze, R., Marshal, J.P., Winterbach, C.W., Winterbach, H.E.K., Keith, M. Demographic consequences of habitat loss and crowding in large carnivores: a natural experiment. African Journal of Ecology.

Ralls, K., Sunnucks, P., Lacy, R.C., Frankham, R. 2020. Genetic rescue: a critique of the evidence supports maximizing genetic diversity rather than minimizing the introduction of putatively harmful genetic variation. Biological Conservation.

Comley, J., Joubert, C.J., Mgqatsa, N., Parker, D.M. 2020 Battle of the large carnivores: spatial partitioning in a small, enclosed reserve? African Journal of Wildlife Research.

Parker, D.M., van de Vyver D.B., Bissett, C. 2020. The influence of an apex predator introduction on oan already established subordinate predator. Journal of Zoology.

Bauer, H., Dickman, A., Chapron, G., Oriol-Cotterill, A., Nicholson, S.K., Sillero-Zubiri, C., Hunter, L., Lindsey, P., Macdonald, D.W. 2020. Threat analysis for more effective lion conservation. Oryx.

Hutchinson, A. and Roberts, D.L., 2020. Differentiating captive and wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations in South Africa, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Biodiversity and Conservation, pp.1-19.

Miller, S.M., Druce, D.J., Dalton, D.L., Harper, C.K., Kotze, A., Packer, C., Slotow, R. and Bloomer, P., 2020. Genetic rescue of an isolated African lion population. Conservation Genetics21(1), pp.41-53.

Braczkowski, A., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Nsubuga, M., Allan, J., Biggs, D. and Maron, M., 2020. Detecting early warnings of pressure on an African lion (Panthera leo) population in the Queen Elizabeth Conservation Area, Uganda. Ecological Solutions and Evidence1(1), p.e12015.

Sibanda, L., van der Meer, E., Hughes, C., Macdonald, E.A., Hunt, J.E., Parry, R.H., Dlodlo, B., Macdonald, D.W. and Loveridge, A.J., 2020. Exploring perceptions of subsistence farmers in northwestern Zimbabwe towards the African lion (Panthera leo) in the context of local conservation actions. African Journal of Wildlife Research50(1).

Ferreira, S.M. and Funston, P., 2020. African Lion and Spotted Hyaena Changes in Kruger National Park, South Africa. African Studies Quarterly19(2), pp.37-50.

Weckworth, J.K., Davis, B.W., Dubovi, E., Fountain‐Jones, N., Packer, C., Cleaveland, S., Craft, M.E., Eblate, E., Schwartz, M., Mills, L.S. and Roelke‐Parker, M., 2020. Cross‐species transmission and evolutionary dynamics of canine distemper virus during a spillover in African lions of Serengeti National Park. Molecular Ecology

Booth, V.R., Masonde, J., Simukonda, C. and Cumming, D.H., 2020. Managing hunting quotas of African lions (Panthera leo): A case study from Zambia. Journal for Nature Conservation, p.125817.

Abade, L., Cusack, J., Moll, R.J., Strampelli, P., Dickman, A.J., Macdonald, D.W. and Montgomery, R.A., 2020. The relative effects of prey availability, anthropogenic pressure and environmental variables on lion (Panthera leo) site use in Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape during the dry season. Journal of Zoology310(2), pp.135-144.

Barnardo, T., Tambling, C.J., Davies, A.B., Klein-Snakenborg, S., Asner, G.P., le Roux, E., Cromsigt, J.P., Druce, D.J. and Kerley, G.I., 2020. Opportunistic feeding by lions: non-preferred prey comprise an important part of lion diets in a habitat where preferred prey are abundant. Mammal Research, pp.1-9.

McCubbin, S.G., 2020. The Cecil Moment: Celebrity environmentalism, Nature 2.0, and the cultural politics of lion trophy hunting. Geoforum108, pp.194-203.

Beattie, K., Olson, E.R., Kissui, B., Kirschbaum, A. and Kiffner, C., 2020. Predicting livestock depredation risk by African lions (Panthera leo) in a multi-use area of northern Tanzania. European Journal of Wildlife Research66(1), p.11.

Beukes, M., Radloff, F.G. and Ferreira, S.M., 2020. Spatial and seasonal variation in lion (Panthera leo) diet in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. African Journal of Wildlife Research50(1), pp.55-68.

Dolrenry, S., Hazzah, L. and Frank, L., 2020. Corridors of tolerance through human-dominated landscapes facilitate dispersal and connectivity between populations of African lions Panthera leo. Oryx, pp.1-4.

Comley, J., Joubert, C.J., Mgqatsa, N. and Parker, D.M., 2020. Lions do not change rivers: complex African savannas preclude top-down forcing by large carnivores. Journal for Nature Conservation, p.125844.

Dagorne, D., Kanté, A. and Rose, J.B., 2020. A citizen science approach to monitoring of the Lion Panthera leo (Carnivora: Felidae) population in Niokolo-Koba National Park, Senegal. Journal of Threatened Taxa12(1), pp.15091-15105.

Ferreira, S.M., Beukes, B.O., Haas, T.C. and Radloff, F.G., 2020. Lion (Panthera leo) demographics in the south‐western Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park. African Journal of Ecology

Gayo, L., Nahonyo, C.L. and Masao, C.A., 2020. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Local Community Perceptions Towards Lion Conservation: A Case of the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Journal of Asian and African Studies, p.0021909620929382.

Callealta, I., Ganswindt, A. and Lueders, I., 2020. Reproductive cycle stage assessment using vaginal cytology evaluation in African lions (Panthera leo). Animal Reproduction Science213, p.106260.

Grobbelaar, D., 2020. The White Lion as Symbol of the Archetype of the Self and the Cannibalization of the Self in Canned Hunting. Jung Journal14(2), pp.11-29.

Coals, P., Moorhouse, T.P., D’Cruze, N.C., Macdonald, D.W. and Loveridge, A.J., 2020. Preferences for lion and tiger bone wines amongst the urban public in China and Vietnam. Journal for Nature Conservation, 57: p.125874.

Braczkowski, A., Gopalaswamy, A.M., Elliot, N.B., Possingham, H.P., Bezzina, A., Maron, M., Biggs, D. and Allan, J.R., 2020. Restoring Africa’s Lions: Start with good counts. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution8, p.138.

Gayo, L., Nahonyo, C.L. and Masao, C.A., 2020. Will the sustainability of lion tourist hunting be certain amidst non compliance to conservation legal frameworks? A case of Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Sociology6: pp. 122-145.

Sobratee, N., Slotow, R. 2019. Researcher perspective, research mode, and power structures on outcome bias and implemention gaps. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution.
doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00081

Davidson-Phillips S, Davidson-Phillips P, Canning G, Schroder B, Swart J, Burger A. 2019. Canine Distemper Virus Management in Lions (Panthera leo) on Welgevonden Game Reserve. Afr J Wildl Res; 49: 155

Gigliotti LC, Slotow R, Hunter LTB, Fattebert J, Sholto-Douglas C, Jackowski DS. 2019. Context-dependency of top-down, bottom-up, and density-dependent influences on cheetah density. J Anim Ecol

Dures SG, Carbone C, Loveridge AJ, Maude G, Midlane N, Aschenborn O, Gottelli D. 2019. A century of decline: Loss of genetic diversity in a southern African lion-conservation stronghold. Diversity and Distributions; 25: 870-879

Briers-Louw WD, Verschueren S, Leslie AJ. 2019. Big cats return to Majete Wildlife Reserve, Malawi: evaluating reintroduction success. Afr J Wildl Res; 49: 34-50. doi:

Power RJ, Van der Merwe V, Page-Nicholson S, Botha MV, Dell S, Nel P. 2019. A note on the reestablishment of the cheetah population in the Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa. Afr J Wildl Res; 49: 12-15. doi:

Pekor A, Miller JRB, Flyman MV, Kasiki S, Miller SM, Uiseb K, van der Merve V, Lindsey, PA. 2019. Fencing Africa’s protected areas: Costs, benefits, and management issues. Biol Conserv; 229: 67-75. doi:

Yiu SW, Karczmarski L, Parrini F, Keith M. 2018. Resource selection in reintroduced lions and the influence of intergroup interactions. J Zool; 307(2): 111-124

Snyman A, Raynor E, Chizinski C, Powell L, Carroll J. 2018. African lion (Panthera leo) space use in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfontier Conservation Area. Afr J Wildl Res; 48: 1-12. doi:

Ralls K, Ballou JD, Dudash MR, Eldridge MDB, Fenster CB, Lacy RC, Sunnucks P, Frankham R. 2018. Call for a paradigm shift in the genetic management of fragmented populations. Conserv Letters; 11: e12412 doi: 10.1111/conl.12412

Williams, VL, Loveridge AJ, Newton DJ, Macdonald DW. 2017. A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia. PLoSONE. doi:

Williams, VL, Loveridge AJ, Newton DJ, Macdonald DW. 2017. Questionnaire survey of the pan-African trade in lion body parts. PLoSONE. doi:

Lindsey PA, Petracca LS, Funston PJ, Bauer H, Dickman A, Everatt K, Flyman M, Henschel P, Hinks AE, Kasiki S, Loveridge A, Macdonald DW, Mandisodza R, Mgoola W, Miller SM, Nazerali S, Siege L, Uiseb K, Hunter LTB. 2017. The performance of African protected areas for lions and their prey. Biol Conserv; 207: 137-149

Yiu S-W, Parrini F, Karczmarski L, Keith M. 2016. Home range establishment and utilization by reintroduced lions (Panthera leo) in a small South African wildlife reserve. Integr Zool; 12(4): 318-332 doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12243

Swanson A, Arnold T, Kosmala M, Forester J, Packer C. 2016. In the absence of a “landscape of fear”: How lions, hyenas, and cheetahs coexist. Ecol Evol. Doi: 10.1002/ece3.2569

Loveridge AJ, Valeix M, Chapron G, Davidson Z, Mtare G, Macdonald DW. 2016. Conservation of large predator populations: Demographic and spatial responses of African lions to the intensity of trophy hunting. Biol Conserv.

Clements HS, Cumming GS. 2016. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land conservation areas. Conserv Biol. Doi:10.1111/cobi.12864.

Trinkel M, Fleischmann PH, Slotow R. 2016. Electrifying the fence or living with consequences? Problem animal control threatens the long-term viability of a free-ranging lion population. J Zool. Doi: 10.1111/jzo.12387

Bertschinger HJ, Caldwell P. 2016. Fertility suppression of some wildlife species in southern Africa – a review. Reprod Domest Anim. DOI: 10.1111/rda.12783

Davies AB, Tambling CJ, Kerley GIH, Asner GP. 2016. Limited spatial response to direct predation risk by African herbivores following predator reintroduction. Ecol Evol. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2312.

Bertola LD, Jongloed H, van der Gaag KJ, de Knifjj P, Yamagushi N, Hooghimstra H, Bauer H, Henschel P, White PA, Driscoll CA, Tende T, Ottosson U, Saidu Y, Vrieling K, de Iongh HH. 2016. Phylogeographic patterns in Africa and high resolution delineation of genetic clades in the lion (Panthera leo). Sci Reports; 6: 30807. doi:101038/srep30807.

Clements HS, Cumming GS, Kerley GIH. 2016. Predators on private land: broad-scale socioeconomic interactions influence large predator management. EcolSoc; 21:45.

Miller SM, Harper CK, Bloomer P, Hofmeyr J, Funston PJ. 2015. Fenced and fragmented: Conservation value of managed metapopulations. PlOS ONE; 10: e0144605. doi:10.137/journal.pone.0144605.

Biodiversity Management Plan for the lion (Panthera leo) in South Africa. 2015. Government Gazette. No. 38706.

Miller SM, Tambling CJ, Funston PJ. 2015. GrowLS: Lion (Panthera leo) population growth simulation for small reserve management planning. Afr J Wildl Res; 45: 169-177.

Bissett C, Parker DM, Bernard RTF, Perry TW. 2015. Management-induced niche shift? The activity of cheetahs in the presence of lions. Afr J Wildl Res; 45: 197-203.

Williams V, Newton, D, Loveridge A, Macdonald D. 2015 Bones of Contention: An assessment of the South African trade in African Lion Panthera leo bones and other body parts. TRAFFIC, Cambridge UK & WildCRU, Oxford UK

Ferreira SM, Hofmeyr M. 2014. Managing charismatic carnivores in spatially restricted areas: Large felids in South Africa. S Afr J Wildl Res; 44: 32-42.

Miller SM, Funston PJ. 2014. Rapid growth rates of lion (Panthera leo) populations in small, fenced reserves in South Africa: a management dilemma. S Afr J Wildl Res; 44: 43-55.

Miller SM, Harper CK, Bloomer P, Hofmeyr J, Funston PJ. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for population studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo). 2014. J Hered; 105: 762-72.

Tambling CJ, Ferreira SM, Adendorff J, Kerley GIH. 2013. Lessons from management interventions: consequences for lion-buffalo interactions. S Afr J Wildl Res; 43(1):1-11. 2013. doi:

Funston PJ, Groom RJ, Lindsey PA. 2013. Insights into the management of large carnivores for profitable wildlife-based land uses in African savannas. PlOS ONE; 8: e59044. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059044.

Packer C, Loveridge A, Canney S, Caro T, Garnett ST, Pfeifer M, Zander KK, Swanson A, Macnulty D, Balme G, Bauer H, Begg CM, Begg KS, Bhalla S, Bissett C, Bodasing T, Brink H, Burger A, Burton AC, Clegg B, Dell S, Delsink A, Dickerson T, Dloniak SM, Druce D, Frank L, Funston P, Gichohi N, Groom R, Hanekom C, Heath B, Hunter L, Deiongh HH, Joubert CJ, Kasiki SM, Kissui B, Knocker W, Leathem B, Lindsey PA, Maclennan SD, McNutt JW, Miller SM, Naylor S, Nel P, Ng’weno C, Nicholls K, Ogutu JO, Okot-Omoya E, Patterson BD, Plumptre A, Salerno J, Skinner K, Slotow R, Sogbohossou EA, Stratford KJ, Winterbach C, Winterbach H, Polasky S. 2013. Conserving large carnivores: dollars and fence. Ecol Letters; 16: 635-41.

Bissett C, Bernard RTF, Parker DM. 2012. The response of lions (Panthera leo) to changes in prey abundance on an enclosed reserve in South Africa. Acta Theriol; 57: 225-231.
DOI 10.1007/s13364-011-0071-8

Di Minin E, Fraser I, Slotow R, MacMillan DC. 2012. Understanding heterogeneous preferences of tourists for big game species: implications for conservation and management. Anim Conserv; doi:10.1111/j.1469-1795.2012.00595.x.

Trinkel M, Funston P, Hofmeyr M, Hofmeyr D, Dell S, Packer C, Slotow R. 2010. Inbreeding and density-dependent population growth in a small, isolated lion population. Anim Conser; 13: 374-382. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2009.00344.x.

Slotow R, Hunter LTB. 2009. Reintroduction decisions taken at the incorrect social scale devalue their conservation contribution: the African lion in South Africa. In: Hayward MW, Somers MJ, editors. Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; pp. 41-73.

Funston PJ. 2008. Conservation and management of lions in Southern Africa: Status, threats, utilization and the restoration option. In: Croes B, Deiongh HH, Bauer H, editors. Management and Conservation of Large Carnivores in West and Central Africa. Leiden: Institute of Environmental Sciences; pp. 109-31.

Lehmann MB, Funston PJ, Owen CR, Slotow R. 2008. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa. PlOS ONE; 3: e3998. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003998.

Lehmann MB, Funston PJ, Owen CR, Slotow R. 2008. Feeding behaviour of lions (Panthera leo) on a small reserve. S Afr J Wildl Res; 38: 66-78.

Lehmann MB, Funston PJ, Owen CR, Slotow R. 2008. Reproductive biology of a pride of lions on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa. Afr Zool; 43: 230-236.

Bertschinger HJ, de Barros Vaz Guimarāes, Trigg TE, Human A. 2008. The use of delorelin implants for the long-term contraception of lionesses and tigers. Wildl Res; 35: 525-530.

Trinkel M, Ferguson N, Reid A, Reid C, Somers M, Turelli L, et al. 2008. Translocating lions into an inbred lion population in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Anim Conserv; 11: 138-43.

Hunter LTB, Pretorius K, Carlisle LC, Rickelton M, Walker C, Slotow R, et al. 2007. Restoring lions Panthera leo to northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: short-term biological and technical success but equivocal long-term conservation. Oryx; 41: 196-204.

Hayward MW, O’Brien J, Kerley GIH. 2007. Carrying capacity of large African predators: Predictions and tests. Biol Conserv; 139: 219-229.

Hayward MW, O’Brien J, Hofmeyr M, Kerley GIH. 2007. Testing predictions of the prey of lion (Panthera leo) derived from modelled prey preferences. J Wildl Manag; 71: 1567-1575. DOI: 10.2193/2006-264

Hayward MW, Adendorff J, O’Brien J, Sholto-Douglas A, Bissett C, Moolman LC, Bean P, Fogarty A, Howarth D, Slater R, Kerley GIH. 2007. Practical consideratinos for the reintroduction of large, terrestrial, mammalian predators based on reintroductinos to South Africa’s Eastern Cape province. Open Conserv Biol; 1: 1-11.

Hayward MW, Adendorff J, O’Brien J, Sholto-Douglas A, Bissett C, Moolman LC, Bean P, Fogarty A, Howarth D, Slater R, Kerley GIH. 2007. The reintroduction of large carnivores to the Eastern Cape, South Africa: an assessment. Oryx; 41: 205-214. doi:10.1017/S0030605307001767.

IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist. 2006. Regional Lion Conservation Strategy for the lion Panthera leo in eastern and southern Africa. Gaberone: IUCN – Regional Office of Southern Africa.

Druce D, Genis H, Braak J, Greatwood S, Delsink A, Kettles R, Hunter L, Slotow R. 2004. Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Afr Zool; 39: 273-284.

Druce D, Genis H, Braak J, Greatwood S, Delsink A, Kettles R, Hunter L, Slotow R. 2004. Population demography and spatial ecology of a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa. Koedoe; 47: 103-118.

Power RJ. 2003 Evaluating how many lions a small reserve can sustain. S Afr J Wildl Res; 33: 3-11.

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